Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: Updated for the 21st century

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  • When we imagine Maslow’s famous hierarchy of needs, we visualize a pyramid. This is all wrong, says humanistic psychologist Scott Barry Kaufman.
  • This is because life isn’t a video game, where you unlock new levels until you reach the final prize of self-actualization. In fact, Maslow viewed human development as a two steps forward, one step back dynamic.
  • Kaufman rebuilt Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, updating it for the 21st century with a solid scientific foundation. And a better metaphor for this is a sailboat.


Transcend: The New Science of Self-Actualization
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